French restructurings: Could a ‘high yield’ noteholder block a safeguard procedure?
The issuance of worldwide bond debt, also known as high yield notes, is a extremely popular financing choice for French companies during the last couple of years, whether or not this ended up being to finance their industrial investments in order to fund an LBO transaction. However, a bond crisis appears to begin happening in Europe, that is attested for instance with a worrying liquidity decrease of these securities noticed in the very first 1 / 2 of 2016. A vital real question is how this debt is going to be treated in case of a safeguard procedure (sauvegarde) opened up in France (this analysis being also relevant to some redressement judiciaire).
High yield and safeguard mechanisms
The complex workings of the high yield borrowing is characterised by its worldwide nature. Basically, a borrowing French company (issuer) will enter an issuance agreement (indenture) controlled by an overseas law, normally the law from the Condition of recent You are able to, supplying for that issue of bonds which represent the borrowed funds (notes).
This transaction involves mainly four participants: the issuer, the trustee (who schematically manages the borrowed funds and it is the issuer’s contact point in this way), the custodian (who physically supports the notes) and also the advantageous proprietors (who funded the proceeds from the loan and therefore are individuals who’re the best recipients from the repayment from the notes). You should clarify the advantageous proprietors, who’re frequently a mix of pension funds, hedge funds along with other debt funds, have only an indirect stake within the loan (known as book-entry interests, that are bought and offered available on the market) and for that reason have only an immediate contractual relation using the trustee and also the custodian, although not using the issuer that they frequently remain anonymous.
The outlet of the safeguard procedure enables a business in financial difficulty to restructure its indebtedness through diverse measures (debt rescheduling, write-offs, debt-to-equity swap, etc.) that are put down inside a draft safeguard plan, susceptible to your application of creditors and also the court.
Whenever a safeguard procedure is opened up towards a business of great size that has issued bonds, French insolvency laws and regulations provide that there’s an over-all set up comprised of the whole from the bondholders (such as the high yield noteholders). This set up needs to election for or from the draft safeguard plan, in a sixty-six per cent majority “notwithstanding any contractual provisions on the contrary and notwithstanding what the law states relevant towards the issuance agreement”. This rule of majority is aimed at stopping a minority creditor from blocking a recovery plan which can be approved by most other creditors.
Identifying the best creditor
Should an individual wish to election within this set up, stated person should first be qualified like a creditor. Inside a high yield borrowing, you have to ask who’s the particular creditor between your trustee, the custodian and also the advantageous proprietors, since they all have its very own legal rights deriving in the indenture.
Regarding the the extended judicial fight we fought against within the Belvedere situation a couple of years back, in france they Top court, with what we feel may be the only French situation law existing about this issue, clarified clearly for this question by ruling towards the trustee, or even more precisely towards what the law states relevant towards the debt obligation. A Legal Court mentioned that it’s “what the law states from the supply of [your debt] that shall define who’s the creditor”. Quite simply, since New You are able to law entitles the trustee with the caliber of creditor, then your trustee must take advantage of all legal rights that French law grants to creditors. Therefore, the trustee from the notes will be titled to file for an evidence of claim and also to election within the set up of bondholders, in every situation for the quantity from the notes.
Effects and implications
This acceptable solution enables the issuer, a legal court and every one of the process physiques to profit from one interlocutor for that notes during the entire safeguard procedure, speaking like a single voice, whatever the quantity of advantageous proprietors and even if your notes keep being exchanged available on the market during stated procedure.
However, an indirect results of this decision would be to confer, de facto, a lot of power, a power obstruction, to potentially each advantageous owner. The restructuring measures that are considered within the safeguard plan truly are considered to become amendments towards the indenture, which amendments the trustee shall not accept without getting acquired your application from the advantageous proprietors in compliance using the majority rules supplied by the indenture. These majority rules may also vary with respect to the envisaged modification. In this way, certain minor modifications only need an easy majority approval, whereas extra time of maturity, a personal debt-to-equity swap, or perhaps a write-off, may need most 90% or perhaps certain indentures a unanimous decision.
Thus, when the consultation from the advantageous proprietors leads to an endorsement from the safeguard plan using the needed majority, then your trustee can express his complete and total agreement of the aforementioned pointed out plan in the general set up of bondholders. On the other hand, when the majority contractually needed isn’t arrived at, then your trustee doesn’t have other option rather than reject the program.
Therefore, the mixture from the safeguard mechanism with this from the high yield notes largely neutralises most rules supplied by French law for that adoption of the safeguard plan, or perhaps faster financial safeguard plan. This indeed leaves the truth of article L.626-32 from the French Commercial code, pursuant that the 2 thirds majority rule should apply “notwithstanding any contractual provisions on the contrary and notwithstanding what the law states relevant towards the issuance agreement”, ineffective. A advantageous owner who holds under the 3rd needed legally however the minimum needed through the indenture (that could even represent just one high yield bond whenever a unanimous decision is needed) would take advantage of a possible indirect power blocking the process, and for that reason a genuine settlement power.
This confers these bonds having a maximum legal protection, that is reassuring for that investors. However the cool thing is that, when confronted with a blocking situation, an issuer and the judicial administrator could be enticed to understand more about certain legal options we are able to consider to be able to circumvent this case and facilitate the adoption of the safeguard plan. Nonetheless, it’s obvious that none of those legal options have yet been tested in French courts. Consequently, not too distant future restructuring projects ought to be viewed carefully, certain players already showing some wish to be a significant counterparty within the forthcoming operations.
 L’ensemble des Echos, 17 septembre 2015, “United nations mur de dette spéculative à rembourser en 2016”
 L’ensemble des Echos, 24 mai 2016, “La stratégie plusieurs gérants face à la dégradation en liquidité”
 Article L. 626-32 du Code de commerce.
 Com., 13/09/2011.